Examination of Cybersickness in Virtual Reality: The Role of Individual Differences, Effects on Cognitive Functions & Motor Skills, and Intensity Differences During and After Immersion
PubDate: Oct 2023
Teams: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens;American College of Greece;University of Edinburgh
Writers: Panagiotis Kourtesis, Agapi Papadopoulou, Petros Roussos
Background: Given that VR is applied in multiple domains, understanding the effects of cyber-sickness on human cognition and motor skills and the factors contributing to cybersickness gains urgency. This study aimed to explore the predictors of cybersickness and its interplay with cognitive and motor skills. Methods: 30 participants, 20-45 years old, completed the MSSQ and the CSQ-VR, and were immersed in VR. During immersion, they were exposed to a roller coaster ride. Before and after the ride, participants responded to CSQ-VR and performed VR-based cognitive and psychomotor tasks. Post-VR session, participants completed the CSQ-VR again. Results: Motion sickness susceptibility, during adulthood, was the most prominent predictor of cybersickness. Pupil dilation emerged as a significant predictor of cybersickness. Experience in videogaming was a significant predictor of both cybersickness and cognitive/motor functions. Cybersickness negatively affected visuospatial working memory and psychomotor skills. Overall cybersickness’, nausea and vestibular symptoms’ intensities significantly decreased after removing the VR headset. Conclusions: In order of importance, motion sickness susceptibility and gaming experience are significant predictors of cybersickness. Pupil dilation appears as a cybersickness’ biomarker. Cybersickness negatively affects visuospatial working memory and psychomotor skills. Cybersickness and its effects on performance should be examined during and not after immersion.