Typing on Any Surface: A Deep Learning-based Method for Real-Time Keystroke Detection in Augmented Reality
PubDate: Aug 2023
Teams: Australian National University
Writers: Xingyu Fu, Mingze Xi
Frustrating text entry interface has been a major obstacle in participating in social activities in augmented reality (AR). Popular options, such as mid-air keyboard interface, wireless keyboards or voice input, either suffer from poor ergonomic design, limited accuracy, or are simply embarrassing to use in public. This paper proposes and validates a deep-learning based approach, that enables AR applications to accurately predict keystrokes from the user perspective RGB video stream that can be captured by any AR headset. This enables a user to perform typing activities on any flat surface and eliminates the need of a physical or virtual keyboard. A two-stage model, combing an off-the-shelf hand landmark extractor and a novel adaptive Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (C-RNN), was trained using our newly built dataset. The final model was capable of adaptive processing user-perspective video streams at ~32 FPS. This base model achieved an overall accuracy of 91.05% when typing 40 Words per Minute (wpm), which is how fast an average person types with two hands on a physical keyboard. The Normalised Levenshtein Distance also further confirmed the real-world applicability of that our approach. The promising results highlight the viability of our approach and the potential for our method to be integrated into various applications. We also discussed the limitations and future research required to bring such technique into a production system.